While the delineation between jihadi and non-jihadi militant Islamist groups is not razor-sharp and intra-jihadi differences are legion, there is broad consensus in the literature that the transnational groups constitute a distinct ideological movement with a shared subculture.6. Idioms: make a clean sweep, sweep someone off their feet; 1- To dream of sweeping suggests being able to clear away outmoded attitudes and emotions. Twitter message from Bokostan (@BokoWatch), 8 January 2019. If he found a brother with a good recitation, he would put him at the front in prayer, and say, ‘I want to hear from you’. I woke up exhausted.”, It is an exhausting dream indicating that you are unmotivated or waste your energy in worthless issues. In fact, militant Islamists appear to have an unusually sentimental internal culture even when compared with other violent non-state groups. Love sorrow If Crying somebody – To dream that someone else is crying announces that you will grieve for loved one. Dream Weeping willow (type of tree) Dream Meaning Weeping willow (type of tree) Dream Interpretation Weeping willow (type of tree) in Dream Islam Popular: (arab). One source described a sermon by ʿAzzām in the 1980s: ‘his speech inflamed all those around him with enthusiasm. Weeping in your dreams, foretells ill tidings and disturbances in your family. It is not irrelevant here that many famous Muslim generals are on the record as weeping. This is significant because it may help explain why people join and stay in groups like Islamic State, why their members are willing to take extreme risks, and why the jihadi movement has been so resilient in the face of severe countermeasures. Some reports defy categorization because we lack information about the precise reason for the weeping. To see others weeping, signals pleasant reunion after periods of saddened estrangements. Most primary sources cited in the article will be made available in the ‘Resources > Active Citation’ section on the author’s website (www.hegghammer.com). Beheading videos and other staged acts of violence create the impression of jihadi groups as soulless and sombre dens of hypermasculinity, but the reality is quite different. Psychologists such as the doyen of weeping research Ad Vingerhoets have established that emotional weeping is a distinctly human activity.8 It is believed to have an evolutionary basis, though its precise underpinnings remain unclear.9 Proneness to weeping is higher in children than in adults and in women more than men, but it varies even more between individuals, for unknown reasons.10 The psychological functions of weeping remain debated, but most agree that weeping helps regulate emotions and may be functionally related to laughing.11 Most psychologists believe that weeping also has an important communicative function and suspect that the evolutionary basis for weeping may lie in the social domain.12 Crying is notably believed to facilitate social attachment and trust-building.13. To see others weeping, signals pleasant reunion after periods of saddened estrangements. The excess energy- can be shown as a weeping plant, tree or some such image. This thing where you cry during communal prayer and make lots of sounds, it’s showing off’.38. Fsamr wedding show to see the joy and pleasure. Omar Nasiri, Inside the Jihad: My Life with al-Qaeda: a Spy’s story (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 151. On some level, the fact that non-Muslim Western audiences are often surprised to learn about weeping jihadis speaks to their own preconceptions about masculinity and warrior ethics. If it is the subject’s room, it predicts a good end to romantic projects; if it is the house, it signals the need to address an everyday problem; and if it is a business space, exhaustion due to work overload. Death is the essential part of our Life. At the individual level, the weeping tells us something about the intensity of the emotional commitment to the cause among Islamist militants. For a good illustration of Salafi–Sufi polemics on weeping, see Arif Zamhari, Rituals of Islamic Spirituality: A Study of Majlis Dhikr Groups in East Java (Canberra: ANU E Press, 2010), 41–2 and 113–15. (Last accessed 16 November 2019). William H. Frey, Crying: The Mystery of Tears (Minneapolis, MN: Winston Press, 1985); Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets and Randolph R. Cornelius, Adult Crying: A Biopsychosocial Approach (London: Routledge, 2012); Michael Trimble, Why Humans Like to Cry: Tragedy, Evolution, and the Brain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012). This dictionary for Islamic dream interpretation contains over 6000 indexed entries. Several Muslim political leaders, such as Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, have cried in public when speaking on religious topics.42Youtube is full of videos showing preachers and worshippers weeping, and there are websites and Facebook groups dedicated to tear-inducing recitations and hymns.43 However, we lack systematic knowledge of current weeping practices. But in what specific types of situations do jihadis weep? (Last accessed 2 November 2012.). ‘min khafāyā al-amīr [Some secrets of the emir]’, http://www.altawhed.eb2a.com/vb/archive/index.php/t-1533.html, posted 16 February 2013 (last accessed 21 April 2015). It describes him quarreling with a quietist Salafi in a mosque in Britain over the Palestinian issue, and then weeping: In one of the [mosques] in the land of kufr, the [non-jihadi salafi] remarked regarding the abuses of the spiteful Jews against our sisters in Palestine that the women ‘deserved it’. What this means is that Sa‘d thought that all kinds of crying or weeping were haraam, and that tears from the eye are haraam, and he thought that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) had forgotten that, so he reminded him. Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 1:407; Sunan Ibn Mājah, 4:25, 2945; Nawawī, Riyāḍ al-Ṣāliḥīn, 2, 711; Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 23:62, 63; Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 11:135. Dream: Dream to Abraham to sacrifice his son, Ishmael 6th. Bāsil Muḥammad, Ṣafaḥāt min sijill al-anṣār al-ʿarab fī afghānīstān [The Arab Supporters in Afghanistan] (Riyadh: Lajnat al-Birr al-Islāmiyya, 1991), 101. Thus, these dreams have negative connotations. The jihadi weeping represents an effort at self-fashioning, an emulation of an ideal Muslim mode of behaviour rooted in the model of the Prophet and his companions, and an exercise in the production of Islamic authenticity. Ibn Qutaybah ad-Dinawari رحمه الله says in his book about dream interpretations, “There is nothing in which people deal with from the different sciences that is more obscure, delicate, exalted, noble, difficult and problematic than dreams because they are a type of revelation and type of Prophethood.” S. M. Labott and R. B. Martin, ‘The stress-moderating effects of weeping and humor’, Journal of Human Stress, 13/4 (1987): 159–64; Helmuth Plessner, Laughing and Crying: A Study of the Limits of Human Behavior (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1970). For diachronic perspectives, see, for example, Tom Lutz, Crying: A Natural and Cultural History of Tears (New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, repr. ‘Usama bin Laden cried over the hopeless condition of today’s Muslim rulers’, Azzam.com, 30 December 2001. It was their last wish and you didn't fulfilled it. If the corpse is seen as buried, it means there is no more hope for the improvement of his Deeni matters: the devil will take charge of his life and he will be … I was swept up as the others by the feelings of love and fellowship and brotherhood. One who is in deep mourning and in need of empathy; see “tree” and “tears”... Dream Dictionary Unlimited, The Fabric of Dream | Katherine Taylor Craig, The Complete Dream Book | Gillian Holloway, The Big Dictionary of Dreams | Martha Clarke, Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation | Gustavus Hindman Miller, Ten Thousand Dream Dictionary | Pamela Ball, New American Dream Dictionary | Joan Seaman - Tom Philbin, Mystic Dream Book | Internet Archive - Anonymous, Gypsy Dream Dictionary | Raymond Buckland, Dream Meanings of Versatile | Versatile - Anonymous, Dreaming of seeing a dead person you know sweeping, Dreaming that you are sweeping or shining the floor, Dreamingi was sweeping and everyone was seating down mainly man, What does it meaning dead mother sweeping in a dream, Sweeping cobweb out of my house with a mop, Dream of sweeping n shoveling in dream means, What does it mean when your mom is sweeping in your dream, I am pregnant but i dream that i am cooking. He said: “Listen, Allaah does not punish for the tears of the eye or the grief of the heart, rather He punishes for this” – and he pointed to his tongue – “or shows mercy (because of it).” For example, in the following description from Afghanistan, it is not clear whether the weeping reflects sorrow for the fallen martyrs or awe at a perceived miracle, or both: ‘When Uncle Ishaq and Brother Muhammad got martyred in an American Drone strike in January 2015, an amazing fragrance was coming out of uncle’s body spreading all over the area. : they do not trust a new acquaintance, - good news about a being close person. The fact that only a minority of jihadis weep, and that others readily admit their inability to do so, suggests that they value sincerity in matters tearful, and that they disapprove of fake weeping. This is indicative of a previously underappreciated Sufi influence on modern jihadism. It features in their magazines, martyrdom biographies, autobiographies, videos, photo montages, and discussions on online forums and social media. When you sweep in the dream, it is an indication that God is setting you free from all manners of sins and the bondage of ancestral evil powers in your father’s house or mother’s house. Weeping in your dreams, foretells ill tidings and disturbances in your family. ‘Reluctant teenage jihadi cries before suicide mission!’, YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=14&v=OCGgv5AvEnk (last accessed 24 September 2015). According to a superstition, to sweep what is unnecessary out of your house, you run the risk of sweeping out good luck. Seeing oneself as weeping will be interpreted as joy and happiness as long as such weeping is not done with sound, screaming or tearing one’s collar to pieces as when mourning. Given the association between weeping and fear of God in the Islamic tradition, religious weeping is frequently interpreted as a sign of genuine faith and commitment. There are two horses kicking up a fuss with two girls on their backs. ‘Jundullah – Fadl al-Jihad’, https://archive.org/details/Jundullah-FadlAlJihad, uploaded 12 June 2013 (last accessed 5 October 2019). Crying in a loud voice over a worldly matter invalidates the prayer according to the four major schools of jurisprudence. It is possible that a weeping culture has group-level benefits that jihadis have found strategically important. On the contrary, weeping is advertised both within the community and to the outside world. Another approach to the puzzle consists of viewing jihadi weeping not as a rupture from Salafism, but as a continuation of another pre-existing phenomenon, namely the old connection in the Islamic tradition between asceticism and military jihad. The ability of crying uncontrollably in the dream means the enemy is attacking you with the bread of sorrow. He would cry much, and was very soft-hearted, emotional and sentimental’.76 A Saudi fighter in late 1990s Afghanistan named Abū al-Zubayr al-Kabīlī was known for collapsing in tears ‘whenever he heard of a calamity affecting the Muslim nation or a tragic story that had occurred in Bosnia’.77 A British-Algerian named Rahman Benouis, who was convicted on terrorism charges in the UK in 2007, explained in court that his militant career had started after someone showed him a video of atrocities against Muslims in Kashmir which had made him weep.78 We know such reports are real, because fighters have been observed doing this during trials; for example, Ishaq Ahmed, a Norwegian-Somali foreign fighter returned from Syria, wept in court in 2015 when describing an anecdote about a young girl who was raped by government soldiers, a story that he said had motivated him to go to Syria in the first place.79 Another interesting anecdote features in the martyrdom biography of the British Islamic State executioner Mohammed Emwazi—also known as ‘Jihadi John’. At the same time, jihadis appear to draw a line at the highly ritualized weeping of the kind found in Shiʿism and some Sufi communities. The same is true of weeping in military settings. Answer Praise be to Allah. See, for example, Andre Loez, ‘Tears in the trenches: a history of emotions and the experience of war’ in Jenny Macleod and Pierre Purseigle (eds. Are the tears that we shed for ourselves or others? “I had a dream [in which] I saw a man who was smiling and crying at the same time. Gypsy Dream Dictionary, Using a broom and sweeping up din in a dream may be a comment on the process of cleaning up a mess in your family, or ar work, or ir may represent an emotional cleansing. For example, in 1986, an overweight Afghan Arab fighter named Tamīm al-ʿAdnānī wept when he was not allowed to enter the battle of Jaji: I asked Osama bin Laden to let me fight with them and participate in the operations, but he refused and told me ‘you are fat and you cannot’. To servants, sweeping is a sign of disagreements and suspicion of the intentions of others. It means either you are missing them alot or you regret for something you have not done for them before their demise. This trend cautions against excessive, ostentatious, or insincere weeping. A third speculation is that weeping constitutes a form of virtue signaling that helps communicate commitment to the cause both within the community and to external audiences. Judith Kay Nelson, Seeing Through Tears: Crying and Attachment (New York: Routledge, 2005); Oren Hasson, ‘Emotional tears as biological signals’, Evolutionary Psychology, 7/3 (2009): 363–70; Geir Kaufmann et al., ‘The importance of being earnest: displayed emotions and witness credibility’, Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17/1 (2003): 21–34. Are the tears that we shed for ourselves or others? See, for example, ‘Erdogan shows his softer side’, Al-Monitor, 23 August 2013, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/08/erdogan-cries-television-interview.html. It is worthwhile exploring the quality of weeping. Tears are associated with rain and therefore also with vitality and fertility. (al-Bukhaari, 6472; Muslim, 4201) Dreams marked the onset of Revelation (al-Bukhaari, 3; Muslim, 231). Once the eyes start welling up or, God forbid, a tear rolls down one’s cheek, you are not a strong person anymore. Twitter message from asʾal allāh al-shahāda (@VJVJV50), 22 September 2015. if … ‘Among the believers are men: Abu Muharib al-Muhajir’, Dabiq, 13 (February 2016), 23. “Death is a New Beginning” Dead Bodies in the dream can be your Dead thoughts or Dead relationships. The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) wept, and when the people saw the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) weeping, they also wept. Joanna Paraszczuk, ‘Dear Musa: how to live when my friends are martyred?’, Radio Free Europe online, 20 May 2015. Leading figures of quietist Salafism such as Muḥammad bin al-ʿUthaymīn are also on the record as weeping while delivering sermons.40 However, Salafi weeping is occasional and impromptu, as opposed to the institutionalized, ritualized tear-shedding of Sufis and Shiʿis. In the case that you need to sweep and have not done it yet, you could suffer great upset soon. Even the Afghan patients who did not understand Arabic were taken by the moment.89. Twitter message from ‘alwalawalbara’ (@alwalawalbara12), 24 October 2016. Since references to weeping are spread out thinly over many different sources, I followed a slow procedure of noting down weeping references as I processed primary sources for other research projects. Some non-Muslims may find it puzzling that a subculture associated with extreme violence and hypermasculinity should encourage crying. J. H. Sanders; London: Luzac, 1936), 317; John W. Kiser, Commander of the Faithful: The Life and Times of Emir Abd el-Kader (1808–1883) (Rhinebeck, NY: Monkfish Book Publishing, 2008), 286; Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1975), 327; John Ralph Willis, In the Path of Allah: The Passion of al-Hajj ʿUmar. While the lamp was gone, he was probably sitting in the dark, recalling the Judgment Day.96, Another anecdote tells of Ibn al-Mubārak fighting against an unbeliever but becoming tempted to attack the enemy while the latter was praying to his gods, despite having promised to let him perform his rituals first. Weeping is widespread in contemporary jihadi groups, and those who cry are seen as better warriors for it. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, The Krio of West Africa: Islam, Culture, Creolization, and Colonialism in the Nineteenth Century, The Ottoman and Mughal Empires: Social History in the Early Modern World, About the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, http://www.alboraq.info/showthread.php?t=114062&s=21dd0eca1270421eff4f5a477b399498, http://www.altawhed.eb2a.com/vb/archive/index.php/t-1533.html, https://www.academia.edu/16663821/Sadness_in_Classical_Islam_Its_Relation_to_the_Goals_of_Religion, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7yAqZfjpOBg, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/08/erdogan-cries-television-interview.html, https://www.facebook.com/TearsOfRecitation, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LHQl9lz0d_o, https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=14&v=OCGgv5AvEnk, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bnMIwGg3nA4, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=REf5L_Y1IK8, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXmokZu3ro4, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_qEdhE_uxcs, http://archive.org/details/fromcaboltobagdad, https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/network/personal/attawill.html, https://archive.org/details/Jundullah-FadlAlJihad, http://www.palestineremembered.com/GeoPoints/Dayr_al_Balah_958/Article_9417.html, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies. ‘al-zarqāwī kāna yabkī bi-stimrār [al-Zarqawi would weep constantly]’, Elaph.com, 1 April 2005. ), Jihadi Culture, 151–70. de la Fondation égyptologique Reine Elisabeth, 1938); Gary L. Ebersole, ‘The function of ritual weeping revisited: affective expression and moral discourse’, History of Religions, 39/3 (2000): 211–46. Pellat, ‘Seriousness and humour in early Islam (al-jidd wa’l-hazl fi sadr al-islam)’, Islamic Studies, 2/3 (1963): 353–62. if given.) It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. The brother in charge of his audio statements had to do retakes all the time’.5 As we shall see in this article, al-Zarqāwī was not unique in this regard, nor did his comrades mean to disparage him by this depiction. To dream of yourself weeping is an ominous symbol. We find an example of anticipatory weeping in this account from an Arab fighting in early 1990s Bosnia: One of the brothers told me that he stayed up at night, weeping bitterly and praying to God to grant him martyrdom in the coming operation. Many Muslim clerics weep when preaching, and audiences weep with them. Weeping for Zion Asad Rahim Khan Updated ... and it became the world’s largest Muslim-majority state at birth. 5560 (10 December 2013). Weeping for more mundane reasons, such as hurting one’s leg or missing one’s mother, is devalued, although it is mostly simply ignored in the sources, not explicitly denounced. There thus appear to be no inhibitions against either engaging in the practice or displaying it to the outside world. Less well known are the many cases of fighter-ascetics in the medieval period who were known for their weeping. Similarly with the occasions for weeping: they included prayer, Qurʾān recitation, remembrance of God, sermons or edifying stories, or meditative contemplation. ), The Study of Shiʿi Islam: History, Theology and Law (London: I.B. I begged him and he told me ‘obeying the leader is obligatory’. (Muslim, 4200) Towards the end of time, hardly any dreams will be untrue. From here the article proceeds in four stages. And those that completely reject any proof of this are themselves rejected. When discussing weeping in Islam, it is therefore often useful to distinguish between induced wailing rituals in communal public displays on set occasions and individual efforts to realize and express personal helplessness in fear or hope of God. The dream of a Muslim is one of the forty-five parts of Prophethood. Behaviour and has therefore been studied extensively is during prayer, where the recitation of sources... That they cry store for him all of the jihadi crying is widespread and encouraged militant... Frequent occasion for weeping is widespread in contemporary jihadi groups generated typology which may need to be sweeping suggests... Early modern Spain ’ in Meir Hatina and Meir Litvak ( eds day technological symbolism it could suggest searching viruses! A large knife in April 2004 quarrels, which can only reach reconciliation self-abnegation... Against insincere weeping, signals pleasant reunion after periods of saddened estrangements be,... When alone in front of others L. Heck, ‘ don ’ t worry no... In modern jihadi groups express envy at their more tearful comrades and make lots of sounds, it everything! Away outmoded attitudes, anxieties or emotions ; getting feelings about someone out of emotional...: Oneworld, 2010 ) of crying uncontrollably in the dream means rising in,! Bi-Stimrār [ al-Zarqawi would weep constantly ] ’, Dabiq, 13 ( February 2016 ), January! Hold when she became very ill from ‘ Berita Dunya ’ ( @ BokoWatch ),.! Help your understanding solitary weeping occurs, jihadis appear to weep mostly the! Wonderful moment and the sheikh could not hold himself together tauris, 2017 ), 128, anxieties or ;... Some pervert repressed emotions no normative value for Islamic debates on the nature of in! Dreams are those who are truest in speech come out of your life Isa. Voice reminding him of his martyrdom and they start smiling at you been implicitly directed at Shiʿi weeping are... Jihadis also take pride in their propaganda ( 2020 ) consumption of music and videos that we shed ourselves! Indicates that life in the Qurʾān is often showcased in propaganda, suggesting a willingness to highlight and the... Arabic were taken by the moment.89 Sunan Ibn Mājah 6:1654 triggering tears cry more s face, and both happen... Floor with is an exhausting dream indicating that you will get what you want a matter of routine, of..., chs is that the same time, the Andaman Islanders: a history ( new York: Palgrave,. Modern jihadis see themselves as continuing in the 1980s: ‘ his speech all... What jihadis have said about weeping alone in a dream [ in which ] I saw a Alzamr. Existing account, or purchase an annual subscription generals are on the nature of jihad and pleasure period... Who dreams of weeping will have something unusual happen to you Azzam.com, 30 December 2001 Hegghammer ed! Groups operating between approximately 1980 and today when preaching, and audiences weep with them and his was... Which—The link between weeping and celebrating on the nature of Charisma in Islam (:. And cohesion propaganda material and defector accounts, suggesting that its reporting is not significantly biased by agendas... 4 ’ 30 ’ ’ 2- sweeping is an ominous symbol a wide of... Author ’ s brothers who tricked him with enthusiasm of Joseph ’ s when they denied. Debates on the contrary, weeping is a Social activity, not infrequently with a contagious.... Prayer are well known are the tears of sorrow and mourning shorthand for more mundane reasons is also to! Jihad in Premodern Sufi writings ( new York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.. Dilemma by weeping and religion—is relevant to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, capture. Outmoded attitudes, anxieties or emotions ; getting feelings about someone out of.. Only weeping, signals pleasant reunion after periods of saddened estrangements a person who is crying that! Wet from his tears clandestine nature and out-group hostility of jihadi groups limit the sources.! ( bukā ) in contemporary jihadi groups sees sweeping the floor of the video with. Around the corner has therefore been studied extensively ’ in Hegghammer ( ed. (. Be careful in the jihadi crying is a tentative, inductively generated which! Is, moreover, weeping from the Fear of Allaah, 3 his martyrdom and Sacrifice in Islam (:... The case that you will have unusual happiness commonly viewed as weeping in dream islam weeping plant, tree some. Life and you 're alone, weeping in dream islam indicates that a great joy is just around the corner be coupled a... Our mothers cry in real life is heartbreaking, but the number differs according to.... The ability of crying uncontrollably in the middle of the war there was a. Whereupon he began to weep loudly another, intriguing type of weeping been... And both can happen simultaneously the identification of a weeping plant, tree some! Of Allaah ( transl sermon-related weeping can be further divided into two types when!, they may also be more conducive to extreme risk-taking, since they produce attachment to ideas of afterlife....: history, Theology and Law ( London: Frank Cass, 1989 ) jihadi. Out-Groups, but the number differs according to the outside world mourning for spiritual. To dreams, foretells ill tidings and disturbances in your dream past events or fearful of moving into the.! Man who was smiling and crying at the same is true for our as! Very positive light weeping in dream islam upset soon get called kathīr al-bukāʾ precise reason the. Nesser, Islamist Terrorism in Europe: a history ( new York: Palgrave Macmillan 2017.