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Hardwood Flats and Pine Savannahs) will develop into wet Pine Flats when logged. Some of the common species of trees found in these wetlands are Red Maple and Pin Oak (Quercus palustris) in the Northern United States, Overcup Oak (Quercus lyrata) and Cypress in the South, and Willows (Salix spp.) Wetlands are fantastic places to spot a huge variety of birds, so make sure that you take your binoculars along with you. Fortunately, most states have enacted special laws to protect tidal marshes, but diligence is needed to assure that these protective measures are actively enforced. Headwater Forests are usually fairly flat and can temporarily hold water in slow flowing channels or small depressions. Over time, many feet of acidic peat deposits build up in bogs of either origin. Therefore, they are able to support a much more diverse plant and animal community. Oysters are also common in these marshes, and their filtering capabilities help improve water quality. Some general wetland types present in Vermont include open water wetlands, emergent wetlands, scrub-shrub wetlands, forested wetlands, wet meadows, peatlands, and vernal pools. Habitat is the most valuable function of Pocosins. Non-tidal marshes are the most prevalent and widely distributed wetlands in North America. Seeps usually occupy small areas on sloping hillsides leading down to a floodplain. (Photo by Will Parson/Chesapeake Bay Program) Non-tidal Wetlands. Although there are many different wetland types, they can be divided into two broad categories: These marshes occasionally receive tidal flooding, but generally remain saturated with freshwater. Unlike the rest of the United States, Alaska still has most of its wetlands. There are many types of wetland, including bog, swamp, marsh, and shallow water wetland, and they cover about six per cent of Earth. A hiker should never venture far into a pocosin without a GPS unit or compass. Seeps can play host to unique vegetation, such as Eller Seep in Western North Carolina, the site of the state’s only green pitcher plant population. Brackish Marshes are not directly connected to ocean waters and typically have a wider range of plant species. Once a part of these programs, the use and ecosystems of the wetlands can be more closely monitored. In addition to their considerable habitat value, non-tidal marshes serve to mitigate flood damage and filter excess nutrients from surface runoff. Over time, peat may build up and separate the fen from its groundwater supply. Trees commonly grow around the edge of the pool rather than inside the pool, where a variety of ferns, sedges, and other herbaceous plants can be found. Like other types of marshes, Non-tidal Freshwater Marsh vegetation is dominated with herbaceous species and can occur on mineral or organic soils. Floodwaters from rivers or streams can serve as an important source of water for these forests, especially in the coastal plain, but less so in the Piedmont and Mountains where groundwater and surface runoff are more common. Headwater Forests generally do not receive overbank flooding from streams like both Bottomland Hardwood and Riverine Swamp Forest wetland types do. Headwater forests are valuable since they filter pollutants from stormwater runoff that enters them and removes these pollutants before they enter streams. Another type of government-sponsored wetland protection comes from incentives offered to landowners to either donate or sell their wetlands to governments or private environmental programs. According to Wikipedia, “ A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem. Non-tidal marshes are the most prevalent and widely distributed wetlands in North America. Some have been degraded by excessive deposits of nutrients and sediment from construction and farming. This kind of wetland is moist but not flooded, and is found over organic or mineral acidic soils. Wetland types developed for one purpose will not necessarily be the same types as those developed for other purposes. Other plants to be found include black needle rush, large salt meadow cordgrass, sea oxeye, and American glasswort. In fact, forested and shrub swamps are often found adjacent to one another. Button bush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) is found only in shrub swamps. The patterns of growth in these marshes can often be linked to environmental factors such as land elevation and tidal flooding. Wetlands are areas that are filled or soaked with fallen rain (freshwater) or salty sea water. Tidal marshes can be found along protected coastlines in middle and high latitudes worldwide. Basin Wetlands are natural depressions in the earth that are surrounded by uplands, or occur on the edges of small lakes or ponds. Hence, these wetlands can be very important to protecting water quality in the entire watershed. www.nae.usace.army.mil/portals/74/docs/regulatory/JurisdictionalLimits/Field_Indicators_Hydric_So... carolinawetlands.org/index.php/donations/. Some fens are characterized by parallel ridges of vegetation separated by less productive hollows. Pine Flats are primarily found in the wide interstream flats of the Coastal Plain ecoregion. In some cases, trees like loblolly bay, swamp bay, sweet bay and pond pine are scattered throughout. Non-Tidal Freshwater Marshes can also develop in areas affected by man-made disturbances, like a utility corridor built on a once forested floodplain, water impounded by road ways, or along the edge of a man-made lake. As a result, marshes sustain a diversity of life that is disproportionate with their size. The Sweet Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia rubra) is one of the carnivorous plants found in pocosins. Wetlands include swamps, marshes, bogs and fens. Therefore, most bogs in the United States are found in the northern states. Wetlands play a critical role in the ecosystem, as well as provide natural valuable environmental services to our towns and properties. Hydric soils are a wetland indicator. Fish and Wildlife Service for the National Wetlands Inventory. is most often water-loving tree species such as Overcup Oak, Ashes, and American Elm. Bogs receive all or most of their water from precipitation rather than from runoff, groundwater or streams. They also can be found along the edge of large lakes. The North Carolina Wetland Assessment Method (NCWAM) was developed  by the North Carolina Division of Environmental Quality specifically for North Carolina and these types are generally recognized in South Carolina as well. These marshes can vary greatly in size, depending on their location in the landscape. Frequent ground fires maintain the open grass and herb covered understory. North Carolina Wetland Assessment Method (NCWAM), President’s Message – NC Climate Assessment and RESILIENCY Plan, www.ncwetlands.org/wp-content/uploads/NCWetlands.org-wetland-soils-factsheet.pdf. Saline marshes support a highly specialized set of life adapted for saline conditions. Dense vegetation can quickly turn a pocosin hike into a crawling expedition. Fens differ from bogs because they are less acidic and have higher nutrient levels. Fens, are peat-forming wetlands that receive nutrients from sources other than precipitation: usually from upslope sources through drainage from surrounding mineral soils and from groundwater movement. The Northern Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia purpurea) overcomes the nutrient deficiencies of bog life by capturing insects in pools of water in its leaves and digesting them with the help of some local bacteria. The Cowardin system is used by the U.S. 836. Shrub swamps are similar to forested swamps except that shrubby vegetation such as Buttonbush, Willow, Dogwood (Cornus sp.) Pocosins provide large tracks of undisturbed land needed by Black Bears (Ursus americanus). Wetlands are transitional lands between lands and other bodies of water. Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Basin Wetlands are found in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain ecoregions of the Carolinas. Examples of non-tidal marshes are: Prairie potholes, playa lakes, vernal pools and wet meadows. The Ramsar Convention has adopted a Ramsar Classification of Wetland Type which includes 42 types, grouped into three categories: Marine and Coastal Wetlands, Inland Wetlands, and Human-made Wetlands. Pine Savannas generally have a more open canopy and shrub layer. Wetlands occur everywhere, from the tundra to the tropics. There are many different kinds of marshes, ranging from the prairie potholes to the Everglades, coastal to inland, freshwater to saltwater. A constructed wetland is an artificial wetland created to treat wastewater, greywater or stormwater runoff. Wetland communities depend on access to liquid water. Nevertheless, bogs support a number of species of plants in addition to the characteristic Sphagnum Moss, including Cotton Grass, Cranberry, Blueberry, Pine, Labrador Tea and Tamarack. Highly organic, mineral rich soils of sand, silt, and clay underlie these wetlands, while lily pads, cattails (see photo), reeds and bulrushes provide excellent habitat for waterfowl and other small mammals, such as Red-winged Blackbirds, Great Blue Herons, otters and muskrats. As water moves slowly through a marsh, sediment and other pollutants settle to the substrate or floor of the marsh. As a result, bogs are low in the nutrients needed for plant growth, a condition that is enhanced by acid forming peat mosses. It’s #WorldSoilDay! Hardwood Flats and Pine Savannahs) will develop into wet Pine Flats when logged. They form when water lying on soil cannot drain away and so builds up. A wide variety of wetlands have formed across the country due to regional and local differences in climate, geology, topography, hydrology, soils, vegetation, water chemistry, and other factors. Different kinds of wetland are home to different types of plant, depending on 2 main factors: whether the wetlands have mostly fresh, salty or brackish (slightly salty) water; whether the wetlands are always wet or switch between being wet and dry (whether they’re permanent, semi-permanent or ephemeral wetlands). The same organic matter also acidifies the water. Due to their inaccessibility to people, pocosins provide good wildlife habitat. Water levels in these wetlands generally vary from a few inches to two or three feet, and some marshes, like prairie potholes, may periodically dry out completely. The Canadian Wetland Classification System (National Wetlands Working Group 1997) is based on a hierarchical system, which includes (1) wetland class, (2) wetland form and (3) wetland type. Swamps are characterized by saturated soils during the growing season and standing water during certain times of the year. There are four main kinds of wetlands – marsh, swamp, bog and fen (bogs and fens being types of mires). The diversion of w­ater causes flooding and, as a result, wetlands develop. Unfortunately, like many other wetland ecosystems, freshwater marshes have suffered major acreage losses to human development. These wetlands can vary in area from hundreds of acres to narrow fringes, depending on the land’s height and location. These systems are often covered by grasses, sedges, rushes and wildflowers. Many rare species, such as the endangered American Crocodile, depend on these ecosystems as well. The unique and demanding physical and chemical characteristics of bogs result in the presence of plant and animal communities that demonstrate many special adaptations to low nutrient levels, waterlogged conditions, and acidic waters, such as carnivorous plants. Tidal marshes are normally categorized into two distinct zones, the lower or intertidal marsh and the upper or high marsh. Swamps frequently support highly diverse vegetation because of the many layers of vegetation present: shrubs, saplings, and herbaceous plants.

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